The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is Germany´s national research center for aeronautics and space. Its extensive research and development activities in aeronautics, space, energy, transport and security are integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. As Germany´s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility for the planning and the implementation of the German space programe by the German federal government.
NDMC is a global program with the mission to promote international cooperation amongst research groups investigating the mesopause region (80-100 km), with the goal of early identification of changing climate signals. This program involves the coordinated study of atmospheric variability at all time scales, the exchange of existing know-how, and the coordinated development of improved observation, analysis techniques and modeling. The initial emphasis is on mesopause region airglow techniques utilizing the existing ground-based and satellite measurement capabilities. NDMC is coordinated by DLR-DFD in cooperation with the UFS.
The GRIPS (Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) instrument routinely measures the temperature in ~87 km altitude with high temporal resolution and precision. The temperatures are used for an early identification of changing climate signals and for the detection of atmospheric gravity waves and infrasound. The latter ones are generated by storm systems, volcanic activity and even tsunamis, and may be used for the rapid detection of natural hazards. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the propagation of these signals through the atmosphere is needed . This is modelled using the HARPA/DLR model.
Storm systems are one of the most destructive natural disaster phenomena. It is still difficult to predict their intensity and track on timescales larger than some hours. The focus of CESAR is to improve the forecast by characterizing the change of the energy content of a storm system. It is well-known, that storm systems generate gravity waves and infrasound. During CESAR it is investigated whether monitoring these wave signatures by remote sensing and in-situ techniques allows the quantification of the changing energy content of the underlying storm system.
Gravity waves transport energy and momentum over large distances significantly affecting the atmosphere. Appropriate consideration of these wave phenomena in climate models is essential for the precision of model results. Due to their small scales, gravity waves are treated in a rather simplified way in current models. The basis for an adequate representation is knowledge about their physical parameters (wavelength, period, etc.) – preferred with global coverage which can only be provided by satellites. However, satellites mostly integrate over a relatively large air volume. This leads to smoothing of the small-scaled gravity wave signatures. This effect is analyzed during the project ‘BHEA’ in cooperation with the University Tromsø, Norway. The German part is funded by BayStMUG (Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health).
The LMU-DLR cooperation project “Health information service for COPD and asthma for Bavaria” aims at the provision of risk-information for patients suffering from chronic pulmonary diseases. Relevant environmental and medical data sets are analyzed in order to quantify the effect of environmental factors on patients’ well-being. This knowledge allows the provision of easily understandable information about health risks to the general public. Moreover, this projects targets at providing warnings in case of predicted (up to three days in advance) environmental situations, which are unfavorable for the patients’ health.
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is used to measure stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases including Ozone, NO2, SO2, Formaldehyde, HONO and aerosols. The MAX-DOAS instrument is operated in cooperation with the DWD at the UFS. The DLR-IMF is responsible for the retrieval of trace gas concentrations from slant column densities measured in scattered solar light.
Precipitation is dependent on the microphysical properties of the clouds. The doppler cloud radar installed at the UFS Schneefernerhaus detects the backscatter signal produced by different hydrometeor types like cloud droplets, drizzle, rain drops, ice particles and snow. This data can help to understand the generation of precipitation and may also be used to validate satellite measurements.